Sectional Anatomy

Course Details

Course Number
RADS 4733
Section Number
RADS 4733
Fall 2013
Days & Times

online course

Sheree Phifer (view Profile)

Course Attachments


Course Objectives

 Course Objectives:

 Radiologic technologists should demonstrate increased awareness of how the human body is arranged three-dimensionally. This course provides opportunities to recognize relationships between standardized anatomical structures prior to working with variations found in "live" patients.

 Upon completion of this course, a student will:

·        Recognize anatomic structures in various planes.

·        Relate planar anatomy to line drawings of related cross-sectional anatomy.

·        Describe the spatial relationship of one structure to another.

·        Differentiate between the appearances of anatomic structures among different modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

·        Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each imaging modality for identifying specific pathological processes.

Course Expectations



Students can proceed through the course content at their own pace within the boundaries set by the Course Schedule and the MSU Academic Calendar. Each unit has a quiz. See the Course Schedule for specific information about activities and due dates. The first two units (cranium & brain) are typically considered the most challenging.


The course content is divided into Units by chapters.  Additional resource material is available through the Internet.  Each Unit has a quiz. See the Course Schedule at the end of this syllabus for all deadlines.


Unit 1:  Cranium

Unit 2:  Brain

Unit 3:  Spine and Neck

Unit 4:  Thorax

Unit 5:  Abdomen

Unit 6:  Pelvis

Unit 7: Extremities



Independent Reading Assignments

Students should complete the reading assignments, answer the chapter objectives, review the Internet resources, and review any Internet resources before attempting the open book Unit quizzes.  See the Course Schedule at the end of this syllabus for specific information about Unit quiz due dates.

The illustrations in the text are orientated in the same direction as CT and MR scans. The course includes images that are coronal (front to back), sagittal (side to side), as well as axial or transverse (top to bottom). These should be easy to differentiate.  

                • Axial or transverse planes run parallel to an imaginary plane that divides the body into top and bottom halves. Students should keep in mind that sectional images are viewed as if the patient is lying on a table and the observer is standing at the patient's feet and looking “up” at the exposed slice of the body. (The patient’s left side will be on the viewer’s right field of view) This is the most common image presentation.

               • Coronal planes run parallel to an imaginary plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves,

               • Sagittal planes run parallel to an imaginary plane that divides the body into left and right halves,

While the text is more or less self-explanatory, the individual units in the course begin with diagrams relating to planar anatomy. These diagrams are included to assist the student in becoming familiar with the relationship between the anatomical structures   when viewed in cross-sectional orientation.

D2L Open Book Unit Quizzes - 25%

When a student has reviewed a Unit and is ready for the quiz, he or she will log on to D2L and receive a customized timed Unit quiz consisting of randomized multiple choice questions. See the course schedule for the due dates of the Unit quizzes. The dates in the syllabus reflect goal dates for quizzes to be completed in order to progress through the course in a timely manner. If the student does not complete the quizzes by a goal date there will be no grade penalty. All quizzes must be completed before taking the Final Exam. The student can take any quiz at any time throughout the course and in any sequence they prefer but all quizzes must be completed by the DUE DATE in the Course Schedule. If quizzes are not completed by this DUE DATE a “0” will be given for the missing quiz.

Technical issues may occur (cannot see an image, cannot see your grade, etc.). The easiest solution is to see if the issue can be corrected by simply changing browsers. Internet explorer is a good browser however fewer occurrences have been noted by using Firefox as a browser for D2L.  

If students have technical difficulties during a quiz, they should use the “Help” link at the top toolbar in D2L, contact the MSU Information Systems Support Staff, and send an email right away to the course instructor explaining what happened.

If a student finds a faulty quiz test item or believes that a quiz question has been scored incorrectly, he or she should send an email to the course instructor that includes the following:

w Unit Quiz Number (1 - 6)

w  Question Stem

w  Answer Scored as Correct by the Computer

w  Answer the Student Thinks Should be Correct

w  Rationale Supporting Why the Student’s Answer is Correct

  1. Page numbers must be included when referencing the textbook in a rationale 

After reviewing the case, if the course instructor thinks a revision is justified, the student’s quiz score will be revised to reflect the additional points and the test bank will be updated.  It may take several weeks for the student to receive a response because the instructor works on batches of questions for a particular quiz at a time.

Sectional Anatomy Assignment - 25%

The purpose of this assignment is to enforce the unremarkable appearance of anatomy as compared to pathological changes detected on different sectional imaging modalities (CT and MRI).  Students should demonstrate that they have an understanding of the anatomy they chose, but perhaps more importantly, this assignment provides an opportunity for students to “step back” and see which imaging modality is the most appropriate for the anatomy and condition being examined to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the patients.  

The Sectional Anatomy Assignment is a short PowerPoint demonstration of knowledge. You can make this presentation as simple or as interactive as you want.

 Topic Approval:

Students will pick one (1) organ, joint, or section of the spine (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar) to research. Students must submit their topic requests to the appropriate discussion board (or you can directly access the topic area by clicking the link found in module 4) by the due date indicated on the course schedule or a grade of zero will be assigned. 

Note: You will be comparing CT and MRI modalities. You should do some research prior to submitting your topic for approval to determine that your chosen pathology can be imaged using both modalities.

  • Two students within the same section of the course cannot have the same topic. To avoid duplication, students can review the discussion board to see anatomy already selected by classmates. 
  • Students may NOT use anatomy reports submitted previously for other classes.  The instructor may not be aware that a student has previously used a particular topic.  Even if the instructor approves the topic for this class and it is revealed later that the student is using the same topic, the student will receive a zero on this assignment. Students would be wise to select topics they have not written about in the past. Refer to the Honor System section of this syllabus, the course instructor, and the links within D2L for more information on academic dishonesty. 
  • The course instructor will let the student know his/her selected anatomy topic is approved by posting on the discussion board. 


Students must use at least 2 – 5 sources of information about this anatomy.  Students may use textbooks, scholarly journal articles (Radiographics is a great source), or other scholarly sources for information about the anatomy (including electronic sources). These articles can be retrieved electronically from databases such as CINAHL which is available through online connection to Moffett Library. 

Students should use only credible medical websites such as   NO CUT AND PASTE of text information from websites. Wikipedia is convenient for casual use, but it is NOT a reliable source for this report because it is “open source.”  This means that anyone can modify the content on the website so you might be using information from the website that is not current or accurate. 

Report Format:

Students must identify the reliable sources they used to create the assignment using appropriate APA format for the reference page. You do not need to include in-text citations. For help with APA formatting the reference page, students should review the 6th edition of the APA Manual and other resources such as The OWL at Purdue website.  This is a quick reference and not as detailed as the writing manual. 


For this assignment, the intended reader is a staff radiographer. Students should prepare this assignment based on what the typical staff radiographer already knows. For example, students do NOT need to explain how x-rays were discovered or how they are produced to support that a CT chest with contrast is the most valuable study to see the thoracic aorta. 


Organization, flow, and grammar count as part of the report grade. The assignment MUST address all criteria listed and in the order given below. DO NOT go passed the limit of slides listed for this assignment. You are to extrapolate information and properly summarize it. Slides must be written at a baccalaureate level.

Submission Format:

The assignment must contain and be limited to the following slides: 

Slide 1: A title page that includes:

  • The name of the pathology
  • The name of the student
  • University affiliation
  • Course number and section
  • Date
  • Instructor’s name

Slide 2: Identify the pathology and give a brief description of important information regarding the pathology.

Slide 3: Diagnostic procedures. Briefly explain the steps needed to produce an image in both modalities. This should include items such as patient position, contrast used and how much, region of interest, etc. Do not go into a lengthy discussion. You do not need to say remove all jewelry, articles of clothing and so forth.

Slide 4: CT imaging comparison. Show a “normal” section of anatomy and compare it to an image demonstrating your chosen pathology. Identify all pertinent anatomical structures in both images using labels. Do not forget to identify the pathology.

Slide 5: MRI imaging. Use the same criteria as in slide 4.

Slide 6: Conclusion. Determine from your research, the best modality that would aid the radiologist/physician in terms of diagnosis and treatment and why.

Slide 7: References. The References list must be in APA format according to the 6th edition APA Manual

The assignment must be submitted to the appropriate assignment drop box in Desire2Learn (D2L) on or before the due date indicated at the end of the syllabus.  Students should NOT email their reports to the instructor. 

To allow sufficient time for grading and providing feedback, late submissions will NOT be accepted. Any assignment not submitted or submitted after the deadline will be assessed a grade of zero “0”.

Early submissions are appreciated; however, they will not be returned until the end of the semester after all reports have been graded.

The report must be submitted as one document.

Be submitted in a 12 pt legible font (e.g. Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman are acceptable – Courier, Verbena, or other “fancy” fonts are not acceptable.

Note: All assignments received are considered complete and will be graded as such.

Comprehensive Final Exam - 50%

All quizzes must be completed before the Final Exam is taken. The comprehensive proctored final exam will be administered using Desire2Learn (D2L).  Each student must have a proctor and test site approved by the course instructor before taking the exam.  Students are not allowed to print the final examThe exam is two (2) hours in length. The Final Exam is CLOSED BOOK. No textbooks or notes may be brought to the testing center. Late submissions will NOT be accepted. Although the exam will be online over the weekend during the time period that has been established, DO NOT schedule to take your final on the weekend. There will be no one here to provide technical help and the chance you take of not being able to complete the exam is YOUR responsibility. As a result, incomplete exams will be graded as completed. 

Proctor Guidelines and the Proctor Application form are available from D2L.  The MSU Radiologic Sciences department now uses a standardized protocol and proctor application.  Students must provide the proctor with the Proctor Guidelines.  Students should submit the completed proctor application to the instructor (fax, US mail, or email from proctor) by the scheduled due date at the end of this syllabus.  All inquiries about the proctor application should be directed to the appropriate instructor.                                   






Activity                                                                                                                                   * Note: These are Central Times

August 24

Classes begin

 August 27

All Quizzes are Open

Goal date Sept 9

Quiz 1

Goal date Sept 23

Quiz 2

Sept 30

Sectional Anatomy PowerPoint topic due by noon

Goal date Oct 7

Quiz 3

Oct 14

Proctor Application due by 5:00 pm CST

Goal date Oct 14

Quiz 4

Goal date Oct 28

Quiz 5

Nov. 4

Sectional Anatomy Paper due by midnight,                                                                        Submit the report to the assignment dropbox as a single Word document.                                      The file should be named:   “lastname_topic”…….e.g.., smith_spleen

Goal date Nov 11

Quiz 6 

Goal date Nov 18

Quiz 7

November 18

All quizzes must be submitted by 11:59 pm CST

December 2, 3, and 5

The Closed Book Final Exam will only be available  December 2, 3 and December 5 submit by 5:00 pm CST (50 questions, 2 hours)


Grading Standards



D2L Open Book Unit Quizzes                                                    25%

Sectional Anatomy Assignment                                                  25%

Proctored D2L Comprehensive CLOSED book Final Exam          50%

Grade Scale:

A = 100 - 90

B = 89 - 80

C = 79 - 70

D = 69 – 60

F = 59 and below 

Note: This instructor does not round up the final course grade. There is no extra credit. There is no way you can go back and complete a quiz or an assignment once it is past the deadline. DO NOT ask me if you can and do not ask me for extra credit.

The last opportunity to drop this course with a grade of “W” is October 21 at 4:00pm. Refer to the Undergraduate Bulletin for details about receiving a grade of “Incomplete” in a course.  In an emergency or extenuating circumstance, a student may request a grade of “Incomplete” in a course before grades are submitted.  If the instructor grants the “Incomplete,” the student has until thirty (30) days after the beginning of the next long semester to complete the course requirements.  If the student does not complete the course requirements within the deadline, the grade of “Incomplete” will automatically convert into a grade of “F.”

Submission Format Policy


The comprehensive proctored final exam will be administered using Desire2Learn (D2L).

Quizzes:When a student has reviewed a Unit and is ready for the quiz, he or she will log on to D2L and receive a customized timed Unit quiz.

Student Assignment: The report must be submitted as one document to D2L dropbox.

Be submitted in a 12 pt legible font (e.g. Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman are acceptable – Courier, Verbena, or other “fancy” fonts are not acceptable.Note: All assignments received are considered complete and will be graded as such.



Note: You may not submit a paper for a grade in this class that already has been (or will be) submitted for a grade in another course, unless you obtain the explicit written permission of me and the other instructor involved in advance.

Plagiarism Policy

Plagiarism is the use of someone else's thoughts, words, ideas, or lines of argument in your own work without appropriate documentation (a parenthetical citation at the end and a listing in "Works Cited")-whether you use that material in a quote, paraphrase, or summary. It is a theft of intellectual property and will not be tolerated, whether intentional or not.

Student Honor Creed

As an MSU Student, I pledge not to lie, cheat, steal, or help anyone else do so."

As students at MSU, we recognize that any great society must be composed of empowered, responsible citizens. We also recognize universities play an important role in helping mold these responsible citizens. We believe students themselves play an important part in developing responsible citizenship by maintaining a community where integrity and honorable character are the norm, not the exception.

Thus, We, the Students of Midwestern State University, resolve to uphold the honor of the University by affirming our commitment to complete academic honesty. We resolve not only to be honest but also to hold our peers accountable for complete honesty in all university matters.

We consider it dishonest to ask for, give, or receive help in examinations or quizzes, to use any unauthorized material in examinations, or to present, as one's own, work or ideas which are not entirely one's own. We recognize that any instructor has the right to expect that all student work is honest, original work. We accept and acknowledge that responsibility for lying, cheating, stealing, plagiarism, and other forms of academic dishonesty fundamentally rests within each individual student.

We expect of ourselves academic integrity, personal professionalism, and ethical character. We appreciate steps taken by University officials to protect the honor of the University against any who would disgrace the MSU student body by violating the spirit of this creed.

Written and adopted by the 2002-2003 MSU Student Senate.

Students with Disabilities

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Disability Support Services in Room 168 of the Clark Student Center, (940) 397-4140.

Safe Zones Statement

The professor considers this classroom to be a place where you will be treated with respect as a human being - regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religious affiliation, sexual orientation, political beliefs, age, or ability. Additionally, diversity of thought is appreciated and encouraged, provided you can agree to disagree. It is the professor's expectation that ALL students consider the classroom a safe environment.

Contacting your Instructor

All instructors in the Department have voicemail in their offices and MWSU e-mail addresses. Make sure you add your instructor's phone number and e-mail address to both email and cell phone lists of contacts.

Attendance Requirements



This is an online course and there are no mandatory sessions.  However, the student should be vigilant in logging onto D2L.  Regular checks will insure that messages from the instructor are received in a timely manner. Always check the news section at the top of the homepage. If nothing appears click on the title or the arrow to review any information that may have been added

Other Policies


Honor System:

RADS 4733 adheres to the MSU Code of Conduct.  In particular, academic dishonesty, however small, creates a breach in academic integrity.  A student’s participation in this course comes with the expectation that his or her work will be completed in full observance of the MSU Code of Student Conduct.  A student should consult the current Student Handbook for answers to any questions about the code.

Many components of RADS 4733 are designed to be highly interactive with students helping each other learn.  Students are encouraged to take full advantage of many resources available including online D2L course resources, Internet sites, other textbooks and journals, faculty, and peers when answering objectives. This interactive collegial learning environment is conducive for life-long learning. 

All components of RADS 4733 are designed to represent the efforts of each student INDIVIDUALLY and NOT to be shared, copied, or plagiarized from other sources.  When students submit their efforts for grading, they are attesting they abided by this rule.

Please note: Cheating includes, but is not limited to, (1) use of any unauthorized assistance in taking quizzes, tests, or examinations; (2) dependence upon the aid of sources beyond those authorized by the instructor in writing papers, preparing reports, solving problems, or completing other assignments; or (3) the acquisition of tests or other academic materials belonging to the university faculty or staff without permission.

Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, the use of, by paraphrase or direct quotation without correct citation in the text and on the reference list, the published or unpublished works of another person. Students may NOT submit assignments that they have previously submitted for this or other courses. The use of materials generated by agencies engaged in "selling" term papers is also plagiarism. Students are encouraged to review the tutorials and suggested websites for more information about plagiarism. 

Academic dishonesty (cheating, plagiarism, etc.) will not be tolerated in this class. Whenever a student is unsure of whether a particular situation will be interpreted as academic dishonesty, he/she should ask the instructor for clarification.  If determined, all students who are guilty of any form of academic dishonesty, a grade of zero (0) will be given for the quiz, assignment, etc.  Cases may also be referred to the Dean of Students for possible dismissal from the university.


By enrolling in this course, the student expressly grants MSU a “limited right” in all intellectual property created by the student for the purpose of this course.  The “limited right” shall include but shall not be limited to the right to reproduce the student’s work product in order to verify originality and authenticity, and for educational purposes. Specifically, faculty may submit student papers and assignments to an external agency to verify originality and authenticity, and to detect for plagiarism.

Communication with Instructor:

Contact information for the instructor is listed at the beginning of this syllabus.  Email is the preferred mode of communication.  Students must use their standardized MSU Student email for correspondence about this course.

Faculty members will not be responsible for keeping up with other email addresses for students.  

The instructor will respond or at least acknowledge email messages from students within a maximum of five (5) business days when MSU is in session.  Beyond standard university holidays and breaks, the instructor will notify students of any extended periods of time when email contact is not practical (professional meetings, etc.).

I will be available to meet live (face to face) with any interested students on Thursday August 29, Bridwell Hall room 302 from 1100- 2:00 pm. This is not a mandatory meeting however I will be available for whoever is interested. Because of other commitments by faculty, it is strongly suggested that you make an appointment with faculty. Do not just show up. 

When there is a need to contact students, the instructor will use the students’ “” email account. The instructor is not responsible for sending emails to any other email account. 

Writing Proficiency Requirement

All students seeking a Bachelor's degree from Midwestern State University must satisfy a writing proficiency requirement once they've 1) passed the 6 hours of Communication Core and and 2) earned 60 hours. You may meet this requirement by passing either the Writing Proficiency Exam or English 2113. Please keep in mind that, once you've earned over 90 hours, you lose the opportunity to take the $25 exam and have no option but to enroll in the three-credit hour course. If you have any questions about the exam, visit the Writing Proficiency Office website at, or call 397-4131.

Campus Carry

Senate Bill 11 passed by the 84th Texas Legislature allows licensed handgun holders to carry concealed handguns on campus, effective August 1, 2016. Areas excluded from concealed carry are appropriately marked, in accordance with state law. For more information regarding campus carry, please refer to the University’s webpage at

If you have questions or concerns, please contact MSU Chief of Police Patrick Coggins at